Jinan Weihua Machinery & Equipment Co.,Ltd.
Jinan Weihua Machinery & Equipment Co.,Ltd.
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The Engraving Principle and Use of Laser Engraving Machine

  • Chapter 1 Introduction

  • Chapter 2 The structure and engraving principle of laser engraving machine

  • Chapter 3 The use and precautions of laser engraving machine

  • Chapter 4 Application Scope and Advantages of Laser Engraving Machine

  • Chapter 5 Comparison between laser engraving machine and other machines

Chapter 1 Introduction

Since its advent in 1960, laser has been quickly used in production. Later, with the continuous deepening of relevant basic theoretical research. With the continuous development of various types of laser devices, their application fields are constantly broadened, the application scale is gradually expanded, and the social and economic benefits obtained are more significant. 

As one of the high technologies, laser technology is an important symbol of the development of science and technology in the 20th century and one of the important pillars of optoelectronics technology in the modern information society. Laser technology is not only highly valued by technologically advanced countries, but also by many developing countries, and a large amount of investment is given. Since the 1980s, in many countries, the government has listed laser technology as a national development plan. For example, the United States' laser nuclear fusion plan, Japan's five-year laser research plan, etc. The implementation of these plans has led to the rapid development of laser technology and has formed a vibrant emerging industry. At the same time, the development of laser technology has greatly promoted the progress and improvement of various technologies, disciplines, and various production levels, and its impact has been so great that it has attracted worldwide attention. 

Chapter 2 The Structure and Engraving Principle of Laser Engraving Machine

2.1 Structure of laser engraving machine

Laser engraving machine is a kind of equipment that uses laser beam for precise engraving and cutting. Its main structure consists of laser generator, laser lens, control system, transmission system and workbench.

1) Laser generator is the core component of the laser engraving machine and mainly consists of a laser tube, high-voltage power supply and cooling system. The laser tube is filled with laser medium. When a high-voltage power supply applies voltage, the laser medium is excited to produce a laser beam.

 2) Laser lens is the controller of the laser beam, and its main function is to focus and orient the laser beam. This is generally achieved using a combination of convex lenses and reflectors. Convex lenses are used to focus the laser beam, and mirrors are used to direct and refract the laser beam. 

3) Control system is the brain of the laser engraving machine, which includes hardware controller and software controller. The hardware controller is responsible for the control of the laser generator, motor and sensor, etc., while the software controller is responsible for image processing and conversion, thereby achieving precise control of the laser beam. 

4) Transmission system includes motors, drive shafts, slide rails, etc. Its main function is to drive the laser lens to complete precise marking movements. 5) Workbench is the working platform of the laser engraving machine. The workbench's surface of the laser cutting and engraving machine surface uses a high-precision work panel to place the items to be processed. Under the action of the laser beam, chemical or physical changes will occur on the surface of the object, thereby achieving the effect of cutting or engraving.

2.2 Principle of Engraving 

The principle of laser engraving is generated by the transition of atoms (molecules orions), and is caused by spontaneous radiation. Although laser is light, it is obviouslydifferent from ordinary light. The laser only relies on spontaneous emission in a very short period of time in the beginning. The subsequent process is completely determined by stimulated radiation. Therefore, the laser has a very pure color and almost no divergent directionality. It can be used for laser engraving machines, with extremely high luminous intensity. Laser also has high coherence, high intensity, and high directionality. After the laser is generated by the laser, it is transmitted by the reflecting mirror and irradiated onto the processed object through the focusing mirror, causing the processed object (surface) to be subjected to strong thermal energy and the temperature rises sharply. Increase, causing this point to quickly melt or vaporize due to high temperature, and match the operating trajectory of the laser head to achieve the purpose of processing.

The application of laser processing technology in the advertising industry is mainly divided into two working methods: laser cutting and laser engraving. For each working method, we have some differences in the operating process. 

2.3 Engraving Method 

Laser engraving: It is mainly performed on the surface of objects and is divided into two types: bitmap engraving and vector engraving: 1) Bitmap engraving: We first mesh the graphics we need to engrave in PHOTOSHOP and convert them into monochrome BMP format, and then open the graphics file in a dedicated laser engraving and cutting software. Usually we use Laser works software. We just need to set the appropriate parameters according to the material we are processing, and then click Run, and the laser engraving machine will engrave according to the dot matrix effect generated by the graphic file. 2) Vector engraving: Use vector software such as Coreldraw, AutoCad, Iluustrator and other typeset design, and export the graphics to PLT, DXF, AI format, and then use dedicated laser cutting and engraving software to open the graphic file and transfer it to laser engraving Processed in the machine. 

Chapter 3 The use and Precautions of Laser Engraving Machine 

3.1 Instructions for use 

(1) Operation panel description ·Power switch: used to start or shut down the laser engraving machine ·Current indication: used to indicate the current size of the engraving machine ·Current adjustment: Use this potentiometer to adjust the current during engraving according to the current indication. ·Lighting switch: used to start or turn off the lighting inside the laser engraving machine (some machines do not have this switch) ·Laser switch: used to control whether the laser emits light. This switch is on (i.e. pressed) when engraving. ·Test switch: When this switch is pressed, the laser emits light. At this time, adjust the potentiometer according to the data displayed on the ammeter to adjust the current during engraving. This switch is only used to debug the machine and check the current during engraving. It needs to be disconnected when the machine is working normally, and the computer will automatically control the engraving. 

(2) When using, start the cooling water pump first, then start the laser engraving machine, and ensure that the cooling water circulates. 

(3) Start the engraving system typesetting software, design the image to be engraved, and determine the engraving position. (Please refer to the software manual for specific steps) Place the engraving material on the work platform to perform

engraving output. 

(4) The current adjustment should be adjusted according to different process requirements. 3.2 Basic operating procedures of laser engraving machine

(1) Power on

1. Turn on the water pump and air pump and let the water in the laser tube circulate for 3 minutes.

2. Turn on the host power

3. Turn on the fan power

4. Turn on the laser power and use the light test button to check whether the light is emitted. 

5. Open the control software and detect whether the light head moves up, down, left, and right. 

6. Place the workpiece and adjust the focal length. For thicker materials, use a 63.5mm=2.5" or 73.5=3" long focal length lens. For fine engraving, use a 50mm=2"

short focal length lens. 

7. Operate the computer to transfer files and start engraving. 

(2) Shut down

Turn off the laser power, host, fan, water pump, and air pump in sequence. 

3.3 Precautions for using laser engraving machine

1.The laser engraving machine should be placed horizontally on the ground and must not be tilted.

2.The laser engraving machine should be prevented from strong vibration, and should be carefully moved smoothly when moving to prevent vibration from causing optical path deviation or laser cracks. 

3. The exhaust pipe should be connected to a non-intrusive place outdoors and kept well ventilated. Dust in the fan and machine smoke pipe should be wiped frequently. 

4. There is high voltage inside the laser engraving machine. Non-professional technicians are not allowed to open the casing for maintenance to prevent electric shock.

5. If the laser engraving machine is used for the first time or after moving, please check whether the high-voltage wire has fallen off to prevent electric shock. 

6. The exhaust fan and cooling water pump of the laser engraving machine are AC220V/50HZ power supplies. (Can also be customized to AC220v 60hz, AC110V 60hz) 

7. The ground wire of the laser engraving machine must be well grounded. 

8. When the laser engraving machine is working, be sure to prevent staff or other personnel from reaching out or looking with their eyes to prevent the laser from hurting people or eyes. It is best to fasten the cover. 

9. Please avoid water entering the equipment or the working environment being too humid. The machine should be placed in a dry and ventilated place. 

10. It is strictly prohibited to disassemble various connectors while the power is on. 

11. The lens inside the engraving machine should be cleaned in time with absolute ethanol or acetone, and should be wiped with care. After wiping, the light path should be adjusted. 

12. When using, ensure that the cooling water circulates well and the water quality is clean. It is best to use pure water or distilled water. If the water is yellow and dirty, the water should be changed in time to avoid poor cooling of the laser tube and lead to explosion. 

13. Pay attention to prevent the cooling water from freezing. When the weather is cold, special attention should be paid to replacing it with car antifreeze in winter. The laser may be damaged due to low temperature, scale or dirt clogging, mechanical impact, etc.

14. Pay attention to prevent corrosion and damage to the internal parts of the chassis caused by excessive smoke, dust, moisture, etc. Therefore, the machine must be cleaned after each workpiece, keep the machine tidy, and wipe it frequently.

Chapter 4 Application Scope and Advantages of Laser Engraving Machine 

4.1 Application in the field of laser engraving 

With the rapid development of optoelectronic technology, the application scope of laser engraving technology is becoming more and more extensive, and the requirements for engraving precision are getting higher and higher. There are three factors that reflect the development level of laser material processing: the first is laser technology, that is, the laser device technology used in laser materialprocessing; the second is the machinery and control systems for laser equipment processing, that is, laser processing equipment; the third It is the level of laser processing technology. Because laser technology is already a very mature technology, the ability to effectively control laser equipment and the level of laser processing technology have become bottlenecks in the application of laser engraving technology. 

4.2 Application scope of laser engraving machine 

1. Laser engraving machine advertising industry: plexiglass cutting, sign engraving, two-color plate engraving, crystal trophy engraving, etc. 

2. Laser engraving machine gift industry: engraving text and patterns on wood, bamboo chips, two-color boards, density boards, leather and other materials. 

3. Laser engraving machine for carton printing industry: engraving products, used for engraving and cutting rubber boards, double-layer boards, and plastic boards 

4. Laser engraving machine for leather and clothing processing industry: It can perform complex processing on genuine leather, synthetic leather and cloth.

5. Other industries of laser engraving machine: model making, decoration, product packaging marking, etc. 

4.3 Advantages of laser processing 

1. Wide range: Carbon dioxide laser can engrave and cut almost any non-metallic material. And the price is low!

2. Safe and reliable: using non-contact processing, it will not cause mechanical extrusion or mechanical stress to the material. There are no "knife marks" and will not damage the surface of the workpiece; it will not deform the material; 

3. Precise and meticulous: the processing accuracy can reach 0.02mm; 

4. Conservation and environmental protection: the diameter of the beam and spot is small, generally less than 0.5mm; the cutting process saves materials, is safe and hygienic; 

5. Consistent effect: Ensure that the processing effect of the same batch is completely consistent. 

6. High speed and fast: high-speed engraving and cutting can be carried out immediately according to the pattern output by the computer. 

7. Low cost: It is not limited by the processing quantity. For small batch processing services, laser processing is cheaper. 

Chapter 5 The Difference Between Laser Engraving Machine and CNC Router

1.Laser engraving, laser cutting, and polishing are completed in one time; the CNC router eeds to be completed in two times.

2. The laser beam can carve narrow and delicate parts such as squirrel's eyes (diameter 1mm), making them smooth and bright; mechanical tools cannot help. 

3. The diameter of the laser beam is only 0.1-0.5mm, and the diameter of the mechanical tool is 20 times, which is a waste of material. 

4. The laser speed is fast, cutting 5mm thick material at 1 meter per minute; the machine is only 40 centimeters, and the laser is 2.5 times faster than the mechanical engraving machine. 

5. Laser energy consumption is less than that of mechanical engraving machines. 

6. Laser is noise-free, pollution-free, and has high work efficiency; mechanical processing is noisy and pollutes the environment. 

7. Laser is non-contact processing and does not require fixing the workpiece; machinery is contact processing and the workpiece must be fixed. 

8. Laser can process soft materials, such as cloth, leather, film, etc. Machinery cannot process because the workpiece cannot be fixed. Therefore, in industries such as advertising signs and organic glass products, the advantages of laser engraving machines are increasingly valued. If you have any interesting or need, you can contact the co2 laser engraving machine manufacturer. Jinan Weihua Machiner

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